Suresh Surmises

ADAM’S APPLE

The epithet Nīlakantha ( nīla = “blue”, kantha = “throat”) refers to a story in which Shiva drank the poison churned up from the ocean world. As per Hindu mythology, the most vicious and venomous poison was created from the sea when Devas (Gods) and Asuras (Demons) churned it in order to obtain Amrit (the nectar of immortality). This poison started to kill both sides.Both parties prayed Lord Shiva to help. Shiva being the supreme one chose to consume the poison. His consort Parvati who was alarmed, stopped it in his throat with her hands thus earning him the name Visakantha, (the one who held poison in his throat). The poison made his throat turn blue. Hence he is also known as Nīlakanta. (the one with a blue throat).Gosaikunda lake is believed to have formed from the digging of the land by the Trishul (holy three-pointed spear, similar to the western trident) of lord Shiva after he drank the poison from Samudramanthan(act of churning) and desperately wanted cold water to quench the overwhelming heat of the poison.

Adam’s Apple is a familiar anatomic feature in the front of the neck that is due to the forward protrusion of the thyroid cartilage, the largest and most prominent cartilage of the larynx..The thyroid cartilage tends to enlarge at adolescence, particularly in males. Enlargement of the Adam’s apple is considered to be one of the secondary gender characteristics. It is usually said that Adam’s apple takes its name from the biblical story about Adam, Eve. the serpent and the apple. A piece of the forbidden fruit stuck in Adam’s throat and created the anatomic Adam’s apple. So the story goes. However, it may be wrong. Adam’s apple in Latin is “pomum Adami.” This may have been a mistranslation of the Hebrew “tappuach ha adam” which also means male bump. Between Latin and English there’s many a slip. The medical term (which is rarely used) for the Adam’s apple is “prominentia laryngea” (prominence of the larynx).

As kids undergo growing pains, their bodies and minds go through tons of changes. One change that every kid can count on is lots of body parts growing and changing shape. Almost every part gets in on the growing action, including the larynx (say: lar-inks). Another name for the larynx is the voice box, and it’s in the throat. The larynx is what gives you your voice, whether you’re talking, laughing, whispering, singing, or screaming! You can find your larynx by touching the front of your throat and humming. When you feel vibrations under your fingers, you’ve found it! When the larynx grows larger during maturity, it sticks out at the front of the throat. This is what’s called an Adam’s apple. Everyone’s larynx enlarges as we grow up, but a girl’s larynx doesn’t grow as much as a boy’s does. That’s why boys have Adam’s apples. Most girls don’t have Adam’s apples, but some do. It’s no big deal either way. The larger larynx also gives boys deeper voices. Actually, girls’ voices get a little bit deeper as their larynxes get larger, too. But because boys’ larynxes grow so much more, it makes their voices deeper than girls’ voices. The larynx doesn’t grow to its new size overnight, though. If you’ve ever heard a teenage boy’s voice sound squeaky, you’ve heard a larynx trying to get adjusted to its new size!

Mixing Religion & Politics

 

 

 

 

 


SURESH SURMISES

By Suresh Doré


MIXING RELIGION WITH POLITICS



In the Indian way of life religion plays an important role and the basis of our day-to-day life is religion. Political leaders right from the beginning felt that if there is any possibility of retaining unity in India, it should be by remaining secular. That is why Gandhiji had been preaching brotherhood among the different re­ligious groups. Nehru was a strong supporter of secularism. Their efforts could not divorce religion from politics rather in politics the vested interests started exploiting caste and religion for gaining political advantage.

With the passage of time India was divided into Pakistan and Bharat only because two nations theory was accepted by the Britishers. Even after Independence, the religious fervor could not be finished because the trail of the memories of the partition haunted the minds of the people, Still India managed to keep the communal forces under check. But the opposition parties exploit religion and theocratic States established in Pakistan and Iran encouraged fundamentalism all over the world. Recently in Punjab religion and politics are so closely interwoven that it has become difficult to separate them.

 
.... Syncing up of Relgion with Politics
finds it roots in the Punjab ....

Religious places are used for political propaganda and the religious sentiments of the people are excited in order to gain political control of the State. This emer­gence of religion-political party has threatened the secular character of India. It is feared that if it succeeds there is a possibility that many other political parties with caste and religion as the basis may come up.

 
... the success of communal groups at the hustings
is cause for more such groups to join the fray ....

Mixing of religion with politics is a dangerous trend because religious attitude is diametrically opposed to democratic feelings. Religion encourages fanaticism and suspends our reasoning power and we repose full faith in leaders. We are prepared to make sacri­fice because sacrifice will be considered martyrdom. This mental attitude is directly opposed to democratic spirit. Democracy de­mands open mindedness, universal brotherhood and thinking based upon reason and capable of taking its own decision. In such cases, there is no herd tendency and the person is liberal in outlook.

If religious forces are allowed to become powerful there will be disintegration of the nation and sovereignty of the State will be in danger. There are a large number of religions, castes and sub- castes in India, and unfortunately some of them are opposed to one another as far as their practices are concerned. Under such circum­stances, there is no possibility of keeping them together if once there is fragmentation.

         
.... If religious groups become powerful
democracy automatically comes under threat
and the survival of the republic itself is at stake ....

Religion is a private affair and if it is allowed to appear in public affairs it will corrupt politics. All the crimes committed in the name of religion in the past as well as in the present one cannot forget. A large number of people have been put to death in Iran only because they do not follow the Islamic religion up to the last Point. So religion makes a a man blind and it will never encourage opposition.

So if we want to consolidate democracy give firm foundations to it and make its working successful, it is necessary that the people should keep religion apart from politics. It is wrong to think that with the help of laws it is possible to divorce religion from politics. Till the attitude of the people is changed, and till they rise above the petty considerations it is not possible to keep religion and politics apart. By keeping them independent of each other, we can retain democratic set-up.

         
.... Religion needs to be extricated from politics unless we want to see the flourishing of barbaric states as we're seeing in the mid-east....


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MARATHON TRAINING

 


SURESH SURMISES

By Suresh Doré
Email: sgdore@gmail.com

 


So you want to run a marathon? Completing 26.2 miles is an awe-inspiring accomplishment that requires commitment and dedication and that provides many rewards, not least of which is joining the .5 percent of the U.S. population who have run a marathon. Most training plans
call for 16 to 20 weeks of training. You’ll run three to five (or more) times per week, and your weekly mileage total will gradually increase as you get closer to the big race day.

         
.... A marathon is an awe-inspiring accomplishment that
that provides many rewards....

The key to successful marathon training is consistently putting in enough weekly mileage to get your body accustomed to running for long periods of time. Newer runners may start with 15 to 20 miles per week total and gradually build to a peak week of 35 to 40 miles. More experienced runners may start at 35 or more miles per week and peak at 50 or more miles. When you select a training plan, avoid those that would increase your volume by more than about 10 percent in the first week. (For example, if you usually run 20-mile weeks, avoid plans that have you running much more than 22 miles in week 1.) Find a training plan here.

The most important part of your training is a weekly long run at an easy “conversational” pace that gradually increases in distance, week over week, to build your strength and endurance. Spending the extra time on your feet helps prepare your muscles, joints, bones, heart, lungs, and brain for going 26.2 on race day. Most training plans build to at least one 18- to 20-mile long run. Most coaches do not recommend completing the full marathon distance in training because they believe the risk of injury outweighs any potential benefits.

         
.... Most coaches do not recommend completing
the full marathon distance in training as
the risk of injury outweighs the benefits.....

Your training plan may also feature weekly or biweekly speedwork, tempo runs, or miles at marathon pace. Common speed workouts for marathoners include mile repeats (usually at about 10K pace) and Yasso 800s (repeats at somewhere between 5K and 10K pace). “Tempo run” most often refers to a sustained effort at comfortably hard (about half marathon) pace, meant to build speed and endurance. And segments at marathon pace—which may be done as part of a long run or as an independent workout—help you to ingrain that pace in your mind and body before race day.

Select a couple of long runs in the month or two before the race to use as “dress rehearsals.” Get up and start running the same time you will on race day. Eat and drink what you’ll eat on the day before, the morning of, and during your race the day before, the morning of, and during the dress rehearsal run. Wear the same shoes and clothing you plan to wear in the marathon. This gives you the opportunity to troubleshoot any problems, and to respect the cardinal rule of marathoning: Never Try Anything New on Race Day.

         
.... Never Try Anything New on Race Day......

What to Eat and Drink

What you eat before, during, and after you run can make or break your training. Eat too little and you’ll bonk—that is, run out of energy to finish your run. Too much and you’ll find yourself running to the bathroom. Midrun fuel—from sports drinks, gels, gummy bears, etc.—helps you sustain energy to finish the effort.

Before you run: To sustain energy, you need to eat something before any run lasting more than 60 minutes. Ideally, you should have a high-carb, low-fiber meal three to four hours before you plan to run. That time frame gives your body a chance to fully digest and reduces risk of midrun stomach issues. However, if you’re running in the morning, it’s not always possible to leave that much time between your meal and your run. If you have at least an hour before your workout, eat about 50 grams of carbs (that’s equal to a couple pancakes or waffles with syrup or a bagel with honey). If you’re doing a really long run, consider adding in a little protein, which will help sustain your energy levels. A PB&J sandwich or a hard-boiled egg are good choices.

       
.............. If you’re doing a really long run,
add some protein to sustain your energy levels.............

During your run: Taking in fuel—in the form of mostly carbohydrates—during training runs that exceed 60 minutes will help keep your blood sugar even and your energy levels high. Runners should consume about 30 to 60 grams of carbs per hour of exercise (it’s best to spread that out over time intervals that work for you, such as every 20 minutes). You can get the right amount of carbs from sports drinks (16 ounces of Gatorade provides 28 grams of carbs), one to two energy gels (GU Energy Gels provide about 22 grams in one packet), or energy chews, like Clif Shot Bloks, which provide about 24 grams of carbs in a three-block serving. Real foods, like a quarter cup of raisins or two tablespoons of honey, also provide the right amount of easily digested carbs that will energize your run. Everyone’s tolerance for fuel is different, however, so the key is to find out what works for you during your training so you know what to take in on race day.


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Suresh Surmises

 


SURESH SURMISES

By Suresh Doré
Email: sgdore@gmail.com

 


 

    • ROAD SIGNS:

In the United States, the categories, placement, and graphic standards for traffic signs and pavement markings are legally defined in the Federal Highway Administration’s Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices as the standard.

A rather informal distinction among the directional signs is the one between advance directional signs, interchange directional signs, and reassurance signs. Advance directional signs appear at a certain distance from the interchange, giving information for each direction. A number of countries do not give information for the road ahead (so-called “pull-through” signs), and only for the directions left and right. Advance directional signs enable drivers to take precautions for the exit (e.g., switch lanes, double check whether this is the correct exit, slow down). They often do not appear on lesser roads, but are normally posted on expressways and motorways, as drivers would be missing exits without them. While each nation has its own system, the first approach sign for a motorway exit is mostly placed at least 1000 m from the actual interchange. After that sign, one or two additional advance directional signs typically follow before the actual interchange itself.

 .... Advance directional signs enable drivers to take precautions for the exit ....

The earliest road signs were milestones, giving distance or direction; for example, the Romans erected stone columns throughout their empire giving the distance to Rome. In the Middle Ages, multidirectional signs at intersections became common, giving directions to cities and towns.

 .... multidirectional signs at intersections became common, giving directions to cities and towns. ....

In 1686, the first known Traffic Regulation Act in Europe is established by King Peter II of Portugal. This act foresees the placement of priority signs in the narrowest streets of Lisbon, stating which traffic should back up to give way. One of these signs still exists at Salvador street, in the neighborhood of Alfama.

 .... road signs are milestones, giving distance or direction ....

The first modern road signs erected on a wide scale were designed for riders of high or “ordinary” bicycles in the late 1870s and early 1880s. These machines were fast, silent and their nature made them difficult to control, moreover their riders travelled considerable distances and often preferred to tour on unfamiliar roads. For such riders, cycling organizations began to erect signs that warned of potential hazards ahead (particularly steep hills), rather than merely giving distance or directions to places, thereby contributing the sign type that defines “modern” traffic signs.

 .... bike groups erected signs that warned of potential hazards ahead (e.g. steep hills), rather than just give distance or directions to places....

The development of automobiles encouraged more complex signage systems using more than just text-based notices. One of the first modern-day road sign systems was devised by the Italian Touring Club in 1895. By 1900, a Congress of the International League of Touring Organizations in Paris was considering proposals for standardization of road signage. In 1903 the British government introduced four “national” signs based on shape, but the basic patterns of most traffic signs were set at the 1908 International Road Congress in Paris.[citation needed] In 1909, nine European governments agreed on the use of four pictorial symbols, indicating “bump”, “curve”, “intersection”, and “grade-level railroad crossing”. The intensive work on international road signs that took place between 1926 and 1949 eventually led to the development of the European road sign system. Both Britain and the United States developed their own road signage systems, both of which were adopted or modified by many other nations in their respective spheres of influence. The UK adopted a version of the European road signs in 1964 and, over past decades, North American signage began using some symbols and graphics mixed in with English.

 .... North American & UK signage began using some symbols and graphics mixed in with English.....

Over the years, change was gradual. Pre-industrial signs were stone or wood, but with the development of Darby’s method of smelting iron using coke, painted cast iron became favoured in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Cast iron continued to be used until the mid-20th century, but it was gradually displaced by aluminium or other materials and processes, such as vitreous enamelled and/or pressed malleable iron, or (later) steel. Since 1945 most signs have been made from sheet aluminium with adhesive plastic coatings; these are normally retroreflective for nighttime and low-light visibility. Before the development of reflective plastics, reflectivity was provided by glass reflectors set into the lettering and symbols.

 .... most signs are made from sheet aluminium as these are normally retroreflective for nighttime and low-light visibility. ....

New generations of traffic signs based on electronic displays can also change their text (or, in some countries, symbols) to provide for “intelligent control” linked to automated traffic sensors or remote manual input. In over 20 countries, real-time Traffic Message Channel incident warnings are conveyed directly to vehicle navigation systems using inaudible signals carried via FM radio, 3G cellular data and satellite broadcasts. Finally, cars can pay tolls and trucks pass safety screening checks using video numberplate scanning, or RFID transponders in windshields linked to antennae over the road, in support of on-board signalling, toll collection, and travel time monitoring.

 ....cars can pay tolls and trucks pass safety screening checks using video numberplate scanning linked to antennae over the road....

Yet another “medium” for transferring information ordinarily associated with visible signs is RIAS (Remote Infrared Audible Signage), e.g., “talking signs” for print-handicapped (including blind/low-vision/illiterate) people. These are infra-red transmitters serving the same purpose as the usual graphic signs when received by an appropriate device such as a hand-held receiver or one built into a cell phone.

 .... another "medium" for transferring information ordinarily associated with visible signs is RIAS ("talking signs") for the print-handicapped (including blind/low-vision/illiterate) people. ....


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